Grama: Model Building
Contents
Grama: Model Building#
Purpose: Grama provides tools to work with models, but in order to use these tools we need to be able to buidl models in grama! This exercise will introduce fundamental concepts for building and sanitychecking models. We’ll build on these skills in future exercises.
Setup#
import grama as gr
import pandas as pd
DF = gr.Intention()
%matplotlib inline
Composition#
Recall that there are four classes of verb in grama; composition verbs take a model as an input and produce a new model as an output. Using compositions we can add information to a model, such as input metadata and functions.
Useful Programming Tools#
To build grama models, we’ll need to use a few simple programming tools.
Lambda functions#
In an earlier exercise, we learned how to define Python functions using the def
keyword:
def fcn(x):
return x ** 2
However, we can define the same function with lambda
syntax:
fcn = lambda x: x ** 2
A lambda
function starts with the keyword lambda
, and is followed by its arguments. The example above has just one argument x
. After the arguments comes a colon :
, which signals that what follows is the output of the function.
The advantage of this lambda
syntax is that it is more compact, and can be incorporated with a grama model building pipeline. Let’s get some practice defining lambda functions.
q1 Implement a lambda
function#
Use the lambda
syntax to implement the following function:
# TASK: Create a lambda function to implement the function above
fcn = lambda x: x + 1
# Use the following to check your work
assert \
fcn(1) == 2, \
"Incorrect value"
print("Success!")
Success!
Working with DataFrames#
Grama uses DataFrames to represent data and to interface with models. The constructor gr.df_make()
is a convenient way to make a simple DataFrame:
# NOTE: No need to edit; recall that gr.df_make(...)
# helps us construct DataFrames
gr.df_make(
x=[1, 2, 3],
y=["a", "b", "c"],
z="recycled value",
)
x  y  z  

0  1  a  recycled value 
1  2  b  recycled value 
2  3  c  recycled value 
We can combine this DataFrame constructor with a lambda
function to take a DataFrame as an input, and return a DataFrame as an output. For instance, the following is a DataFrame version of the previous lambda
function:
fcn_df = lambda df: gr.df_make(y=df.x ** 2)
Note that this lambda
function takes in a DataFrame, uses specific columns from that input df
, and returns a DataFrame.
q2 Functions on DataFrames#
Use the lambda
syntax to implement the following function:
Make sure your lambda function takes a DataFrame as an argument, and returns a DataFrame as an output.
# TASK: Create a lambda function based on DataFrames
fcn_df = lambda df: gr.df_make(y=df.x + 1)
# NOTE: Use the following to check your work
df_res = fcn_df(gr.df_make(x=[0, 1]))
df_out = gr.df_make(y=[1, 2])
assert \
isinstance(df_res, pd.DataFrame), \
"Output must be DataFrame"
assert \
gr.df_equal(df_res, df_out), \
"Incorrect output"
print("Success!")
Success!
Constructing Grama Models#
Remember that composition verbs take in a grama model and return a new model. We use compositions primarily to construct grama models. We can start a blank model with gr.Model()
, but then we need to add functionality to that model!
Add a function#
One of the most core parts of a model is its set of functions; these map from inputs to outputs. For functions defined by simple mathematical expressions, the composition gr.cp_vec_function()
is the appropriate tool for the job.
q3 Add a function to a model#
Add a function to md_basic
that provides the output y = x + 1
.
Hint 1: Consult the documentation for gr.cp_vec_function()
to see what arguments it requires. Remember that you can use help(gr.cp_vec_function)
or use Shift + Tab
to bring up the documentation at your cursor.
Hint 2: Use a DataFramebased lambda function, as you did for q2 above.
# TASK: Finish implementing the model
md_basic = (
gr.Model("Basic model")
>> gr.cp_vec_function(
fun=lambda df: gr.df_make(
y=df.x + 1
),
var=["x"],
out=["y"],
)
)
# NOTE: Use the following to check your work
df_res = (
md_basic
>> gr.ev_df(gr.df_make(x=0))
)
df_out = gr.df_make(x=0, y=1)
assert \
set(md_basic.var) == {"x"}, \
"md_basic has wrong variables"
assert \
set(md_basic.out) == {"y"}, \
"md_basic has wrong outputs"
assert \
gr.df_equal(df_res, df_out), \
"md_basic function incorrect"
print("Success!")
Success!
Add bounds#
Once your model has a function, it is useful to define bounds for the inputs. This does not force the model to reject values outside the bounds, but rather serves as useful metadata about the model. Bounds are used by other verbs like exploratory tools (e.g. for parameter sweeps) and optimization.
The verb gr.cp_bounds()
allows you to add bounds for inputs.
q4 Add bounds to a model#
For the following model, add bounds \(0 \leq x_1 \leq 1\) and \(0 \leq x_2 \leq 1\).
# TASK: Finish implementing the model
md_bounded = (
gr.Model("Bounded input")
>> gr.cp_vec_function(
fun=lambda df: gr.df_make(
y=gr.sin(df.x1) + gr.sin(df.x2)**2
),
var=["x1", "x2"],
out=["y"],
)
>> gr.cp_bounds(
x1=(0, 1),
x2=(0, 1),
)
)
# NOTE: Use the following to check your work
assert \
(md_bounded.domain.bounds["x1"][0] == 0) and \
(md_bounded.domain.bounds["x1"][1] == 1) and \
(md_bounded.domain.bounds["x2"][0] == 0) and \
(md_bounded.domain.bounds["x2"][1] == 1), \
"md_bounded bounds incorrect"
print("Success!")
Success!
A model with functions and bounds already has a lot of useful information! There is a lot more information that a grama model can have, but that’s enough model building for this exercise.
Composition: Quick Reference#
As a quickreference, here is a list of the most important grama composition verbs. Note that some of these are covered later in the exercise sequence; most notably, the verbs related to quantifying uncertainties (marginals and copulas).
Verb 
Description 


Start a new grama model 

Add a vectorized (DataFramebased) function 

Add a nonvectorized (arraybased) function 

Add bounds for inputs 

Add marginal distributions for inputs 

Assume random inputs are independent 

Assume random inputs are correlated 
Checking models#
Once you’ve built a grama model, you can use a variety of tools to work with the model. These are useful for making sense of model behavior.
One of the most key studies you can do with a model is a parameter sweep. There are a variety of grama tools to help do parameter sweeps.
q5 Create a grid of values#
The verb gr.df_grid()
is a helper function that creates a “grid” of points. Modify the code below to see how this function operates.
# TASK: Modify the code, note the changes
(
# TODO: Try modifying the following code; see how
# the results change
gr.df_grid(
x1=[0.0, 0.5, 1.0],
x2=gr.linspace(0, 1, 25),
)
# NOTE: No need to edit the following
>> gr.ggplot(gr.aes("x1", "x2"))
+ gr.geom_point()
)
<ggplot: (8793259304930)>
Once you’ve created a grid of points, you can evaluate the model on that grid to perform a parameter sweep.
q6 Evaluate a grid of values#
Create a grid of points in x1
and x2
to evaluate the model.
# TASK: Create a grid of points
(
md_bounded
>> gr.ev_df(
gr.df_grid(
x1=gr.linspace(0, 1, 25),
x2=gr.linspace(0, 1, 25),
)
)
>> gr.ggplot(gr.aes("x1", "x2", fill="y"))
+ gr.geom_tile()
)
<ggplot: (8793259611332)>
Model sanity checks#
Parameter sweeps are particularly useful when checking that you implemented a model correctly. For example, let’s suppose someone implemented the following function in a model
The following code attempts to implement the function as a grama model.
# NOTE: No need to edit; you'll explore this model in the next task
md_error = (
gr.Model("Error example")
>> gr.cp_vec_function(
fun=lambda df: gr.df_make(
f=(df.x + df.y**2) * (df.x < 0.5)
+(1 + df.x + df.y**2) * (df.x >= 0.5)
),
var=["x", "y"],
out=["f"],
)
>> gr.cp_bounds(
x=(0, 1),
y=(0, 1),
)
)
md_error
model: Error example
inputs:
var_det:
y: [0, 1]
x: [0, 1]
var_rand:
copula:
None
functions:
f0: ['x', 'y'] > ['f']
However, the model implementation above is in error. Up next, you’ll use a parameter sweep to help find the error.
q7 Find the error#
Construct a sinew plot to inspect the model behavior and find the implementation error. Answer the questions under observations below.
Make sure to sweep over all the deterministic variables in the model. Remember that the effect of x
should switch from positive to negative at the midpoint of its domain.
Hint: We learned about sinew plots in the previous grama exercise egrama01basics
.
# TASK: Explore the model's behavior to find the implementation error
(
md_error
>> gr.ev_sinews(df_det="swp")
# NOTE: No need to edit; use this to visualize your results
>> gr.pt_auto()
)
Calling plot_sinew_outputs....
<ggplot: (8793259875428)>
Observations
Do there appear to be any “jumps” in the output? Which variable seems to cause the jump?
Yes, there’s a jump in
x
around the middle of its domain.
What is the error in the implementation?
The sign of
x
in the second part of the piecewise function is wrong; it should be negative.
Payoff: Rapid model exploration#
One of the big payoffs from these model building tools is the ability to rapidly explore models. Since a grama model includes a lot of information (functions and bounds), the tools for evaluating and visualizing models are extremely simple.
For instance, we can rebuild the model to fix the sign error on x
, and quickly construct a sinew plot to verify that we’ve fixed the issue:
# NOTE: No need to edit; this fixes the model
(
# Build the model
gr.Model("Fixed model")
>> gr.cp_vec_function(
fun=lambda df: gr.df_make(
f=(df.x + df.y**2) * (df.x < 0.5)
+(1  df.x + df.y**2) * (df.x >= 0.5)
),
var=["x", "y"],
out=["f"],
)
>> gr.cp_bounds(x=(0, 1), y=(0, 1))
# Evaluate
>> gr.ev_sinews(df_det="swp")
# Plot
>> gr.pt_auto()
)
Calling plot_sinew_outputs....
<ggplot: (8793260085965)>
We’ll see in the next grama exercise how to generate and visualize contour data. Once we’ve implemented a model, the syntax for generating a contour plot is quite simple:
# NOTE: No need to edit; this generates a contour plot
(
# Select the model
md_error
# Evaluate
>> gr.ev_contour(
var=["x", "y"],
out=["f"],
)
# Plot
>> gr.pt_auto()
)
Calling plot_contour....
<ggplot: (8793259932356)>